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Table of Contents



Dedication. 2

Memoriam.. 3

Lexicon. 4

Lexical Words. 4

Poem.. 4

Table of Contents. 5

Goals of This Book. 7

Chapter 1.  Basic Definitions. 15

Chapter 2.  The 12 Major Types of Amorphous Silicas. 18

Chapter 3.  The Amorphous Silicas. 19

Chapter 4.  Differences in Geologic Interpretation. 23

Chapter 5.  Advantages and Biases from Collecting in the Southwest 29

Chapter 6.  The Amorphous Silicas in Relationship to the Periodic Table of the Elements. 38

Chapter 7.  Silica Chemistry. 43

Chapter 8.  The Role of the Smectites (Clays), the Formation of Oolites, Tubes, Filaments, and other Clay Structures, Agate Banding from Clays. 68

Chapter 9.  Geologic Silica and Carbonate Sources of the Amorphous Silicas. 91

Chapter 10.  Overview of the Geologic Formation of Agates, Jaspers, and Opals. 95

Chapter 11.  Types of Lava Related to Amorphous Silica Formation. 98

Chapter 12.  Vesicular Lava formation of Agates and Geodes—A Critical Analysis. 100

Chapter 13.  General Amorphous Silica Temperature of Formation. 106

Chapter 14.  Temperature and other Conditions of Agate Formation in the Literature. 108

Chapter 15.  Bentonite Properties with Temperature. 114

Chapter 16.  Temperature of Lava Related to Agate Formation. 117

Chapter 17.  Sources of Heat for Agate Formation. 121

Chapter 18.  The Pyrite Group (Sulfides) In Relation to the Amorphous Silicas. 126

Chapter 19.  The Sulfate Group In Relation to the Amorphous Silicas. 134

Chapter 20.  The Carbonate and Calcite Groups In Relation to the Amorphous Silicas. 149

Chapter 21.  The Zeolite Group In Relation to the Amorphous Silicas. 167

Chapter 22.  The Mica Group In Relation to the Amorphous Silicas. 184

Chapter 23.  The Chemistry of Silica—Geochemistry and Colloidal Chemistry. 193

Chapter 24.  Geologic Models of Continental Depositional Conditions for the Amorphous Silicas. 214

Chapter 25.  Silica Sources. 231

Chapter 26.  Silica Forming from the Feldspars and Clays and the Formation of Celadonite. 236

Chapter 27.  Theories and Observations from the Field. 251

Chapter 28.  The Role of Volcanic ash and Tuff in Agate and Geode Formation. 261

Chapter 29.  Formation of the Amorphous Silicas Involving Chemical Precipitation. 267

Chapter 30.  Amorphous Silica Formation of Orbicular Structures, Tubes, Dendrites, Comb Structures, Moss Structures, Flower and Bouquet Structures, and Druzy Crystals. 270

Chapter 31.  How Agates Become Banded. 275

Chapter 32.  How Agate, Jasper, and Opal become Fractured, Differentiated, and Brecciated. 301

Chapter 33.  Forming Botryoidal Structures, Tube Structures, Pseudomorphs, and Vugs. 303

Chapter 34.  Pisolithic (pea) and Oncolite Structure Formation. 309

Chapter 35.  Plumes and Stalk Aggregate Structure Formation, Boiling Structures. 311

Chapter 36.  Minerals with the Amorphous Silicas. 322

Chapter 37.  Formation, then Devitrification and Perlitization of Volcanic Glass, Mechanics in Domes and Ash Flows. 327

Chapter 38.  Analysis of Poppy Jasper, Eye Agate and Tube Agate. 347

Chapter 39.  Chrysoprase (Plasma Agate) and Mtorolite Formation, Poppy Jasper and the Serpentine Environment 353

Chapter 40.  Wonderstone types and color zoning, Agate color zoning. 360

Chapter 41.  Amygdules, Nodules, Concretions, Lithosilicas, Thundereggs and Geodes (Structural Agates) 363

Chapter 42.  Discussion and Conjectures of Geode/Thunderegg Formation Including Tubes of Escape Structures. 368

Chapter 43.  Thunderegg Formation. 384

Chapter 44.  The Formation of Biconoid Thundereggs. 396

Chapter 45.  Nodule and Nodule Banding Formation, and the Formation of Crusts. 402

Chapter 46.  Spheroidal Formation and Spheroidal Weathering. 406

Chapter 47.  Conditions of the Formation of the Jaspers with Iron and Manganese Chemistry. 413

Chapter 48.  Mythbusters--Comments Frequently made about Amorphous Silica Formation that are very Likely Untrue. 430

Appendix A.  Ages of Lavas in California. 439

Index. 440

Thanks. 455

Contact Information. 455

Key References. 456

Epilogue. 459

Photography. 460

Poem.. 460

Philosophy. 460

About the Author. 461

Manuscript Availability. 461

The Author’s Geologic Projects. 462

The Two-Volume Book Set Key Features. 465


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