Contents

Introduction. 8

Infrared Spectroscopy Equipment Used. 9

Infrared Behavior with Minerals. 12

The infrared spectrum components. 12

The infrared spectrum overtones explanation. 12

The infrared spectrum Restrahalen Region explanation. 14

Magnitude of s-bands with angle of incidence. 15

Determining refractive index in infrared. 16

Determining Birefringence in Infrared. 20

Determining Isotropy in Infrared. 21

Agate, Jasper, Opal, Chert Identifications in Infrared. 22

Agate Identifications. 23

Silica Minerals in Infrared. 23

Agate, Jasper, Opal differences in infrared. 24

Blue Chalcedony—Turkey. 25

Brazilian Amygdule Agate. 26

Carnelian—Kanan Road, Agoura, CA.. 27

Chalcedony Rose (Agate Rose)—Boron, CA.. 29

Dumortierite Agate—Afton Canyon, CA.. 30

Fire Agate—Southwestern U.S. 32

Gem Silica. 35

Jasper-agate—Lavic, CA.. 37

Manganese Dendrites in Agate. 38

Mexican Lace Agate. 39

Namibian Blue (Vein Agate) 40

Paint Agate (Candy Striper)—Lake Superior Region. 41

Psilomelane Agate—Mexico. 42

Jasper Identifications. 43

Jasper Types. 43

Biggs Jasper (Deschutes Jasper) 44

Bruneau Jasper Geode—Oregon. 45

Egyptian Jasper nodule (Royal Sahara)—Egypt 46

Moss Jasper. 47

Plumose Jasper. 49

Pastelite—Burro Creek, AZ. 50

Poppy Jasper—Hornitos, CA, large orbs. 51

Poppy Jasper—Hornitos, CA, fine orbs. 52

Poppy Jasper—Ocean (Madagascar) Jasper. 53

Poppy Jasper—Olympic Peninsula, WA.. 54

Purple Passion Jasper—Burro Creek, AZ. 56

Moganites in Quartz. 57

Alpha-moganite—Gran Canaria, Spain. 57

Alpha-moganite and Quartz—Snakeskin Agate. 58

Agate—Quartz and Alpha-beta-moganite. 59

Bloodstone—Quartz and Beta-moganite. 60

Burgundy Jasper—Quartz and Beta-moganite—Tonopah, NV. 61

Chalcedony—Quartz and Beta-moganite —Boron, CA.. 62

Chrysoprase—Granular quartz and Alpha-moganite—Australia, Turkey. 63

Flint—Granular Quartz, Beta-quartz, Beta-Moganite—Poland. 65

Gary Green Jasper—Owyhee, Oregon. 67

Green-Lavender Jasper—Quartz and Beta-moganite, trace Sanidine—Boron, CA.. 69

Mookaite—Quartz, Iron, Bentonite, and Beta-moganite—Mooka Station, Australia. 70

Morrisonite—Quartz and Beta-moganite—Oregon. 71

Mtorolite—Quartz and Alpha-moganite—Zimbabwe. 72

Orbicular silica—Quartz and Beta-moganite, Pyrite—San Gabriel Mtns., Glendora, CA.. 73

Stone Canyon Jasper—Quartz, Pyrite, and Beta-moganite—Stone Canyon, CA.. 74

Shadow agate. 75

Silica Rocks and Minerals. 76

Quartz, chalcedony, agate, jasper identification. 76

Silica minerals refractive index. 82

Quartz—Clear, Milky, Citrine, Amethyst, Lavender, Rose, Smoky. 84

Quartz-Microcline—Nevada. 89

Aventurine-Verdite—Quartz. 90

Beta-cristobalite Petrified Wood. 91

Dinosaur Bone—Apatite-Quartz. 92

Fossil Red Coral—Utah. 93

Hawk’s Eye (Tiger’s Eye) 94

Novaculite. 95

Petrified Palm.. 97

Petrified Wood. 98

Pietersite. 99

Rhodonite. 101

Tiger’s Eye. 102

Common Opals. 104

Opals in Infrared. 104

Bertrandite (Tiffany Stone)—Opal-BC. 105

Geyserite—Opal-CTQ—Milford, UT Banded Opal 107

Gabbs Opal Wood—Opal-CTQ—Gabbs, NV. 108

Howardite Jasper—Opal-CTQ—Nevada. 109

Hyalite—Opal-A—Czechoslovakia. 110

Opal-C—Fallen Tree, OR. 111

Opal-CTQ—Opal Mountain, CA.. 112

Opal-BC—Boron, CA.. 113

Opal-BCQ—Barstow, CA.. 114

Opal Wood—Opal-BCQ—Shasta, CA.. 115

Opal-BQ and Jasper—Rainbow Ridge, CA.. 116

Opal-CT-sepiolite—Pink Opal—Peru. 117

Opalite—Opal-Q-bentonite—Kramer, CA.. 119

Opalite—Dendritic Orange. 121

Opalite—Opal-CT—Australia. 122

Plasma Agate—Opal-Q—Clear Creek, CA.. 123

Purple Sage (Amethyst Sage)—Opal-BC—North-Central Nevada. 124

Semi-precious opal—Opal-A—Mexico. 125

Precious Opals. 126

Boulder Opal—Opal-A—Australia. 126

Fire Opal—Opal-A—Wello, Ethiopia. 127

Precious Opal—Opal-A—Cooper Pedy and Andamooka, Central Australia. 128

Precious Opal—Opal-CT—Mexican Orange opal 130

Precious Opal—Opal-CT—Opal Mountain, CA.. 132

Shewa opal—Opal-CT—Ethiopia. 133

Silicate Minerals. 134

Silicate Minerals Refractive Index in Infrared. 134

Phyllosilicates Infrared Behavior in the Water Region. 140

Inosilicates (Pyroxenes and Amphiboles) Refractive Index. 142

Nesosilicates/SiO4 Minerals Refractive Index. 145

SiO4 Minerals Refractive Index. 146

Isometric, and Uniaxial Minerals Refractive Index. 147

Aegirine. 149

Andalusite (Chiastolite) 150

Aventurine, Verdite—Fuchsite Mica. 151

Beryl (Aquamarine, Morganite, Heliodor) 152

Charoite. 154

Clinochlore (Seraphinite) 155

Clinochlore (chlorite) versus Celadonite versus Glauconite. 156

Clinochlore (Mg,Al-chlorite) versus Chamosite (Mg,Al,Fe-chlorite) 157

Cordierite (Iolite) 158

Diopside. 160

Dioptase. 162

Enstatite. 164

Epidote. 165

Howlite. 166

Lepidolite. 167

Maw Sit Sit—Burma/Myanmar (Clinochlore) 169

Pectolite (Larimar™) 170

Peridot (Olivine group Fayalite) 171

Spodumene (Hiddenite, Kunzite) 172

Sugilite. 173

Talc (Soapstone, Steatite) 174

Titanite (Sphene) 177

Topaz. 178

Tourmaline (Dravite, Elbaite, Indicolite, Rubellite, Schorl, Uvite) 179

Vesuvianite. 180

Zircon. 181

Zoisite, Thulite, Tanzanite™.. 182

Metal Oxides. 184

Metal oxide minerals refractive index. 184

Corundum, Ruby, Sapphire. 185

Diaspore (Zultanite) 186

Romanechite (Psilomelane) 187

Rutile. 189

Hematite (Specular Iron, Iron Oxides) 190

Spinel 192

Jades. 193

Actinolite-Nephrite—Happy Camp, CA.. 195

Actinolite-Nephrite—Jade Cove, CA.. 196

Actinolite-Nephrite—Victorville, CA Black Jade-magnetite. 197

Actinolite-Nephrite—Oregon state. 199

Actinolite-Nephrite—Wyoming. 200

Actinolite-Nephrite— Ghost Jade, Yerington, NV. 201

Tremolite-Nephrite—Washington state. 203

Eel River, CA “Nephrite”—Diopside, Clinochlore. 205

Eel River, CA “Nephrite”—Diopside. 206

Feather River, CA (Concow) “Nephrite”—Ferriohornblende. 207

Jadeite-Microcline—Turkey Lavender Jade. 208

Jadeite—Clear Creek, CA.. 210

Jadeite—Guatemala. 212

Minerals Commonly Confused with Jade. 213

Albite. 213

Antigorite (Serpentine group) 214

Bowenite—Lizardite (Serpentine Group) 216

Clinochlore (Chlorite group) 218

Green Quartz. 219

Lizardite (Serpentine group) 220

Vesuvianite. 221

Williamsite—Antigorite (Serpentine group) 222

Garnets. 224

Garnet minerals infrared troughs. 224

Garnet Crystal versus Massive Specimen RI Shift 225

Andradite Garnet (Andradite-Grossular series) (Demantoid, Melanite, Topazolite) 226

Grossular Garnet (Andradite-Grossular series) (Hessonite, Hydrogrossular, Leuco, Tsavorite) 229

Almandine Garnet (Almandine-Pyrope series) (Rhodolite) 232

Pyrope Garnet (Almandine-Pyrope series) 234

Feldspar Minerals. 237

Feldspars refractive index. 237

Feldspar crystal face infrared flipping. 238

Orthoclase Group. 239

Labradorite Group versus Andesine Group and versus Orthoclase. 240

Andesine Group—Andesine, Oligoclase, Albite. 242

Labradorite Group—Labradorite, Bytownite, Anorthite. 243

Albite. 245

Aventurine-Verdite—Orthoclase Feldspar. 248

Aventurine-Verdite—Quartz, Microcline Feldspar. 249

Bytownite (Labradorite group) 250

Chinese Writing Stone (Mixed Feldspars) 251

Grafic Granite—Microcline. 252

Kabamba Jasper—Microcline, Albite, and Quartz—Madagascar. 253

Lapis Lazuli (Lazurite, Hauyne) 254

Larvikite (mixed feldspars)—Norway. 255

Microcline (Amazonite) 256

Moonstone—Orthoclase—Cambria, CA.. 257

Moonstone (pink)—Albite—India. 258

Oligoclase. 259

Orbicular Serpentine (Variolite, Frogskin)—Stony Creek, CA.. 260

Orthoclases—orthoclase (moonstone), sanidine, anorthoclase. 263

Snowflake Obsidian—Sanidine Snowflakes. 265

Sodalite. 266

Spectrolite (labradorite) 267

Starburst Jasper—Sanidine Symplectites. 268

Sunstone—Bytownite—Oregon. 269

Volcanic, Impact, and Igneous Rocks and Minerals. 270

Identifying Impactites from manmade glass. 270

Impact Glass—Libyan Desert Glass. 271

Leopardskin Jasper—Australia. 273

Moldavite—Czech Republic. 274

Mookaite—Gilbert Mtns., Nevada. 275

Mushroom Rhyolite—Wickenburg, AZ. 276

Obsidian. 277

Owyhee Jasper—Owyhee, OR. 280

Spiderman Jasper—Oregon. 281

Spiderweb Jasper—Owyhee, OR. 282

Trinitite—Atomic Bomb Glass, NV. 283

Unakite—Microcline, Epidote. 284

Wonderstone—Goldfield, NV. 286

Wonderstone—Gilbert, NV. 287

Carbonate and Fluorite Minerals. 288

Carbonates refractive index. 288

Carbonates in Infrared. 289

Lazurite (Lapis Lazuli) Marble—Dolomite—Afghanistan. 290

Bumblebee Jasper (Bumblebee Agate)—Calcite—Indonesia. 291

Cacoxenite in Quartz. 292

Citron Chrysoprase—Lizardite. 293

Dinosaur Bone—Apatite-Ankerite-Calcite. 294

Fluorite. 295

Mag-silica—Magnesite and Silica Quartz—Australia. 296

Mariposite—Magnesite—Sierra Nevada Mtns., CA.. 297

Oolitic Agate (Pisoliths)—Hell Creek, UT. 298

Picasso Marble—Calcite, Lizardite—Minersville, UT. 299

Pinolith Magnesite—Austria. 300

Pristine™—Magnesite-Calcite—Nevada. 301

Rhodochrosite. 302

Silver Lace Onyx—Calcite-Silica—Calico, CA.. 303

Stefoinite—Boron, CA.. 304

Stichtite (Lizardite) 305

Strawberry Onyx—Baker, CA, Laguna Lace—Mexico. 306

Verde Antique Marble. 307

Vivianite—Australia. 308

Whale Bone—Silicated—Santa Barbara, CA.. 309

Zebra Marble—Dolomite—Milford, UT. 310

Copper and Turquoise Minerals. 311

Azurite. 311

Chrysocolla. 312

Gem Silica Chrysocolla. 313

Malachite. 314

Shattuckite. 316

Turquoise. 318

Variscite. 319

White Buffalo™—Aragonite—Otteson claims, Nevada. 321

Other Stones and Organic Materials. 322

Clays in Infrared. 322

Amber—Indonesian blue. 323

Amber—Russian. 324

Apatite. 326

Apatite Cat’s Eye. 327

Argillite—Charlotte Islands, BC. 328

Black Coral, Water Buffalo Horn. 329

Jet 330

Shark Teeth, Ivory. 332

Tahitian Perl Shell 333

Man-made Materials. 334

Fake Epoxy Stones. 334

Arctic Stone™ (Malachite, Azurite, epoxy glue) 336

Borosilica glass—Victoria Stone/Iimori Stone. 337

Borosilica Glass versus Quartz. 338

Calsilica (Rainbow Calsilica)—Calcite. 339

Goldstone—Italy. 340

Laboratory Quartz Identification. 341

Laboratory Opal 344

Turquoise Simulants. 345

Victoria Stone (Iimori Stone) 349

Zirconia. 350

Thanks. 351

KASPER JASPER PRESS TITLES. 352